India was the first country to adopt a national agroforestry policy in 2014, with support for the process by FTA and PIM scientists. The historical segregation between forestry and agriculture as policy domains was identified as the primary constraint. FTA partners are currently involved in the technical group for achieving the Agroforestry Mission, created by the policy. It is still too early to estimate the full impact of the implementation of the policy, but thus far, 18 States have changed the laws that had so far blocked mass adoption of agroforestry, especially involving smallholder timber production and marketing; 8 States, representing 39 million landholdings now show significant public and private agroforestry investments.
Assuming only 30% of landholdings (households) use agroforestry practices, at least 11.7 million households, representing about 11 million ha, are already benefiting from changes arising out of the policy. The strategic investment of FTA support has had a huge multiplier effect on financial resources: at the federal level, India committed about USD 410 million (2016-2020) of federal and state government resources to implement the agroforestry policy accompanied by a new “% of green cover” criteria for allocating an additional USD 9.0 billion funds to states. India identified agroforestry as the major tool to fulfil its nationally determined commitments (NDC) to the UNFCCC.